What is Fertilization? Following microinjection, eggs that have successfully undergone fertilization are separated from the other eggs through microscopic evaluation at the 16th hour. It is observed under the microscope that successfully fertilized eggs form two pronuclei (2PN).

Shape 1

Shape 2

Shape 3

Shape 4

(Figure 1)

In unfertilized eggs, no nucleus is observed (0 nuclei; 0 PN).

(Figure 2)
Problematic fertilized eggs are distinguished under microscopic evaluation as having a single nucleus (1 PN)

(Figure 3)

or three nuclei (3 PN)

(Figure 4)
In our center, the fertilization rate using semen sperm is around 75-80%, while with TESE sperm, the fertilization rate is approximately 55-60%.

Until what age can IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) be applied?

IVF treatment can be applied up to the age of 45 in suitable cases. However, it should be known that after the age of 40, both the increased susceptibility of the produced egg to chromosomal errors and the decline in ovarian reserve lead to decreased chances of spontaneous pregnancy as well as pregnancy through IVF, and an increased risk of miscarriage.

Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS) method allows for genetic screening on cell samples taken before the embryos are transferred to the uterus in cases where the woman is 38 years old or older. This enables the detection of embryos with normal chromosomal structure. As a result, the drawbacks associated with advanced age are eliminated, and the live birth rates reach around 50% for embryos reported as normal.

How long does the IVF treatment take?

After the initial evaluation of our patients, we determine a personalized treatment protocol based on their individual characteristics, age, and ovarian reserve. Therefore, some patients may need to use medication according to the treatment protocol recommended for them during the premenstrual period.

The duration of IVF treatment is approximately 2-2.5 weeks from the beginning of the menstrual cycle. The pregnancy status can be determined through a pregnancy test performed 2 weeks after the egg retrieval.

Do the hormone medications used in IVF treatment increase the risk of cancer? Are there any side effects of these medications?

The use of medications in IVF treatment does not increase the risk of cancer (uterine, breast, ovarian). The most important risk is ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS) due to excessive stimulation of the ovaries. In recent years, due to the precautions we have taken, we no longer encounter severe OHSS cases that require hospitalization.

What is done in cases of very low sperm count or absence of sperm in the semen analysis?

If the sperm count is low, except for a very limited group of patients, medication treatment is not possible, and IVF treatment is directly recommended. In cases where there is no sperm in the semen, in addition to IVF treatment, surgical procedures such as searching for sperm inside the testes (TESE/PESA/TESA) are necessary. In this group of patients, structural/numerical chromosomal problems can also be observed in 5-10% of cases. Therefore, we plan to perform chromosomal analysis on the male partner before starting IVF treatment.

What are Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)?

Both are methods of fertilization applied during IVF treatment.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a method where a single sperm is injected into the egg to achieve fertilization. We use the ICSI method in all cases and for all causes of infertility in our clinic due to the higher fertilization rates.

In In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), a specific number of sperm are placed around the egg, and one of the sperm naturally enters the egg.